1.  Indian Heritage and Culture:
1.1 Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms
1.2 Literature and Architecture: From Ancient to modern times.
1.3 Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present.
1.4 Significant event, Personalities and Issues
1.5 The Freedom Struggle – its various stages and important contributors/contributions from different parts of the country.
1.6 Post-independence consolidation and reorganization within the country.

2. History of World and Society
2.1 History of the world will include events from 18th century such as industrial revolution
2.2 World wars, Re-drawl of national boundaries, Colonization, decolonization
2.3 Political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc. – their forms and effect on the society.
2.4 Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India.
2.5 Role of women and women’s organization
2.6 Population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues
2.7 Urbanization their problems and their remedies.
2.8 Effects of globalization on Indian society
2.9 Social empowerment, communalism, regionalism & secularism.

3. Geography of the World:
3.1 Salient features of world’s physical geography.
3.2 Distribution of key natural resources across the world (including South Asia and the Indian subcontinent)
3.3 Factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of the world (including India)
3.4 Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic Activity, Cyclone etc.,
3.5 Geographical features and their location- changes in critical geographical features (including water bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.

4. Constitution:

4.1 Indian Constitution: Historical underpinnings, Evolution, Features, Amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.
4.2 Comparison of the Indian constitutional scheme with that of other countries
4.3 Parliament and State Legislatures – structure, functioning, Conduct of business, Powers & privileges and issues arising out of these, Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary, Ministries and Departments of the Government.
4.4 Pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity.
4.5 Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions and responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies.
4.6 Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies

5. Governance and Polity:

5.1 Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, Issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure
5.2 Devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein.
5.3 Separation of powers between various organs dispute redressal mechanisms and institutions.
5.4 Salient features of the Representation of People’s Act.
5.5 Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.
5.6 Development processes and the development industry: The role of NGOs, SHGs, various groups and associations, donors, charities, institutional and other stakeholders.
5.7 Important aspects of governance: Transparency and accountability, E-governance- applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; Citizens charters, transparency & accountability and institutional and other measures.

6. Social Justice:
6.1 Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States, The performance of these schemes; Mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.
6.2 Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.
6.3 Issues relating to poverty and hunger.
6.4 Role of civil services in a democracy.

7. International Relation
7.1 India and its neighbor-hood relation, Bilateral, regional and global groupings and Agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests
7.2 Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests,
7.3 Indian diaspora.
7.4 Important International institutions,
7.5 Agencies and fora- their structure, Mandate.

8. Economic Development:
8.1 Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, Mobilization of resources
8.2 Growth, Development and Employment.
8.3 Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.
8.4 Government Budgeting.
8.5 Major crops cropping patterns in various parts of the country
8.6 Different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage
8.7 Transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints;
8.8 E-technology in the aid of farmers
8.9 Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices;
8.10 Public Distribution System- objectives, functioning, limitations, revamping;
8.11 Issues of buffer stocks and food security;
8.12 Technology missions;
8.13 Economics of animal-rearing.
8.14 Food processing and related industries in India- scope and significance, location, upstream and downstream requirements, supply chain management.
8.15 Land reforms in India.
8.16 Effects of liberalization on the economy,
8.17 Changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth.
8.18 Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.
8.19 Investment models.

9. Science/Technology:
9.1 Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life
9.2 Achievements of Indians in science & technology;
9.3 Indigenization of technology, developing new technology.
9.4 Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, nano-technology, bio-technology and
9.5 Issues relating to intellectual property rights.

10. Environment & Biodiversity:
10.1 Conservation, Environmental pollution and degradation
10.2 Environmental impact assessment (EIS)

11. Security and Disaster Management
11.1 Disaster and disaster management.
11.2 Linkages between development and spread of extremism.
11.3 Role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security.
11.4 Challenges to internal security through communication networks
11.5 Role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges,
11.6 Basics of cyber security;
11.7 Money-laundering and its prevention
11.8 Security challenges and their management in border areas;
11.9 Linkages of organized crime with terrorism
11.10 Various Security forces and agencies and their mandate

12. Issues of Ethics
12.1 Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in human actions;
12.2 Dimensions of ethics; Ethics in private and public relationships.
12.3 Human Values–lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators;
12.4 Role of family, society and educational institutions in inculcating values.
12.5 Attitude: content, structure, function; its influence and relation with thought and behaviour;
12.6 Moral and political attitudes; Social influence and persuasion.
12.7 Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems;
12.8 Ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions;
12.9 Laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance;
12.10 Accountability and ethical governance;
12.11 Strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance;
12.12 Ethical issues in international relations and funding;
12.13 Corporate governance.
12.14 Probity in Governance: Concept of public service;
12.15 Philosophical basis of governance and probity;
12.16 Information sharing and transparency in government, Right to Information,
12.17 Codes of Ethics,
12.18 Codes of Conduct,
12.19 Citizen’s Charters,
12.20 Work culture,
12.21 Quality of service delivery,
12.22 Utilization of public funds,
12.23 Challenges of corruption.
12.24 Case Studies on above issues.

13. Issues of Integrity and Aptitude
13.1 Aptitude and foundational values for Civil Service,
13.2 Integrity, Impartiality and non-partisanship, Objectivity, Dedication to public service,
13.3 Empathy, Tolerance and compassion towards the weaker sections.
13.4 Emotional intelligence-concepts, and their utilities and application in administration and governance.
13.5 Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and world.
13.6 Case Studies on above issues.

General Studies

Hello, Dearest Students and My Dear Friends,

Since The British Time in India (Yes when they were ruling us), we do know that The Civil Service in India (Especially Since you get to work directly in Central Government) has carried a great importance and need to get selected as Civil Servant of Government Working for “People” of India.

But here ,i will not “focus” just on UPSC (abbreviated for Union Public Service Commission) or Civil Service Examination (CSE) as People call it ‘these’ days, I will also be focusing upon SSC as an important Government Job Portal and basically the main target of this topic i.e is the need to Study for GENERAL STUDIES for Examination as such UPSC/SSC and Other various State Government has driven exams, such as RAS as in Rajasthan, UPPSC as in Uttar Pradesh and MPPSC in Madhya Pradesh etc. etc.

General Studies, holds an immense and ill repeat in so-called other words an”Important” Key aspect in Preparations of various Competitive Exams that our nation holds at both central and state level.

Let us now talk about UPSC in a moment here but before that let me tell u Importance of General Studies in SSC (Staff Selection Commission) and other various ‘un-talked’ and normally easily taken “lightly” by students (which in turn – hurts them later on!) Subjects and Exams.

  • If here i’ll be focusing on SSC exams and General Studies Importance let me tell you beforehand that – This very sector is growing very rapidly fast and so, in turn, it requires Manpower! (Around 40 Lakh students normally participates in this exam) and yes this number won’t be going down even after the recent “SCAM”.
  • So, the need of hour is to focus on General Studies Important in this exam and let me tell u thatGeneral Studies (Finance & Economics) is of 200 marks (100 Questions) with the Duration of 2 hours.
  • So, u understand now? that one of the largest Recruitment or if i must say ‘Government’ Job Recruitment focuses so much on General Studies.

With that being said, will not be going into too much details about state government exams as i talked earlier, but will tell u the importance of General Studies in UPSC or Our Favourite so called “Source” and “Chance” of Being an IAS/IPS/IRS or what not u dreamt of from birth… or let me correct myself here! what your Parents Dreamt of before giving u this life.

And, General Studies for UPSC Is divided in the following manner:

  • Paper IV – General Studies – 250 Marks
  • Paper V – General Studies – 250 Marks
  • Paper VI – General Studies – 250 Marks
  • Paper VII – General Studies – 250 Marks

So, basically a whopping of 250+250+250+250 = freaking 1000 Marks!

and this is not even 50% of what the UPSC demands from the students, but yes this is a hell lot of dedication and hardwork to put into!

and before i motivate and guide you on how to study for General Studies for UPSC, let me give you some tools here to help you with Studying and Scoring well in this competitive world running for IAS.

Below, is the List of “Tools” to help you achieve your dreams and make ‘us’ , your ‘parents’ ,your ‘spouse’ or maybe your ‘children’ “PROUD”.



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