Some important findings of the survey are given below.
Â· About 49 thousand slums were estimated to be in existence in urban India in 2008-09, 24% of them were located along nallahs and drains and 12% along railway lines.
Â· About 57% of slums were built on public land, owned mostly by local bodies, state government, etc.
Â· In 64% of notified slums, a majority of the dwellings were pucca, the corresponding percentage for the non-notified ones being 50%.
Â· For 95% slums, the major source of drinking water was either tap or tubewell.
Â· Only 1% notified and 7% non-notified slums did not have electricity connection.
Â· About 78% of notified slums and 57% of the non-notified slums had a pucca road inside the slum.
Â· About 73% notified and 58% non-notified slums had a motorable approach road.
Â· About 48% of the slums were usually affected by waterlogging during monsoon “ 32% with inside of slum waterlogged as well as approach road to the slum, 7% where the slum was waterlogged but not the approach road, and 9% where only the approach road was waterlogged in the monsoon.
Â· The sanitary conditions in the slums in terms of latrine facility during 2008-09 showed considerable improvement since 2002. Latrines with septic tanks (or similar facility) were available in 68% notified and 47% non-notified slums (up from 66% and 35% respectively in 2002). At the other extreme, 10% notified and 20% non-notified slums (down from 17% and 51% in 2002) did not have any latrine facility at all.
Â· About 10% notified and 23% non-notified slums did not have any drainage facility. The corresponding proportions in 2002 had been 15% for notified and 44% for non-notified slums. Underground drainage systems or drainage systems constructed of pucca materials existed in about 39% notified slums (25% in 2002) and 24% non-notified slums (13% in 2002).
Â· Underground sewerage existed in about 33% notified slums (30% in 2002) and 19% non-notified slums (15% in 2002).
Â· Government agencies were collecting garbage from 75% notified and 55% non-notified slums. Among these slums, garbage was collected at least once in 7 days in 93% notified and 92% non-notified slums. About 10% notified and 23% non-notified slums did not have any regular mechanism for garbage disposal.
Â· Over the last five years, facilities had improved in about 50% of notified slums in terms of roads (both within-slum road and approach road) and water supply. The incidence of deterioration of any of the existing facilities in notified slums during the last five years was quite low (about 6% or below).
Â· In case of most slum facilities “ sewerage and medical facilities being exceptions “ the facility was reported to have improved during the last five years in more than 20% of non-notified slums. Deterioration of any of the existing facilities in non-notified slums, like notified slums, was rare (about 9% or below).
Â· Facilities such as street light, latrine, drainage, sewerage and medical facilities were each reported by more than 10% of notified slums to be non-existent both at the time of survey and five years earlier. In case of non-notified slums, facilities like street light, latrine, drainage, sewerage and garbage disposal were each reported by more than 20% of the slums to be non-existent, both during the survey and five years earlier.
Â· Where improvement had been brought about during the last 5 years, it was due to the Government s efforts in about 80-90% of slums, both notified as well as non-notified and for all the facilities. Improvement in educational facilities at primary level was attributed to NGOs in 13% of the notified slums where such improvement was reported. NGOs were also found to have played a role in the improvement of latrine and sewerage system in non-notified slums.
The percentage distribution of slums in some major States by type of ownership of land is given at Annexure.
This report is also available on the website (www.mospi.gov.in) of the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation.